Transportation of China
China is building an efficient transportation network in line with international standards. In recent years, China's integrated three-dimensional transportation infrastructure has improved significantly in both scale and quality. During the 13th Five-year Plan period, transportation development entered a new stage of modernization. China has put more emphasis on the optimization of transportation layouts, network quality and efficiency, the elimination of bottlenecks, and capacity and connectivity improvement of international transport corridors.
■ Aviation Network
As of the end of 2019, China had 238 licensed airports, among which 106 had an annual passenger throughput of over one million. In 2019, Beijing Capital International Airport achieved a 100-million passenger throughput, ranking second in the world for the tenth consecutive year; the cargo throughput of Shanghai Pudong International Airport stood at 3,634,200 tons, ranking third worldwide for the twelfth consecutive year. By the end of 2019, China had 5,521 scheduled air routes, including 953 international routes. Air China, the flag carrier of the People’s Republic of China, operates regular flights to 234 domestic 2. Investing in China cities (excluding HKSAR, Macao SAR, and Taiwan), and 167 international cities across 65 countries. China has signed 127 bilateral air transport agreements with other countries or regions. Over the 13th Five-year Plan period, China has continued to build world-class airports across the country, from the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region to the Yangtze River Delta to the Guangdong-Hong KongMacao Greater Bay Area, and accelerate the construction of international and regional aviation hubs. Specifically, China is planning the construction, renovation, and expansion of feeder-line airports in a scientific manner so as to increase the number of airports in central and western China, and to expand the coverage of aviation services.
■ Shipping Network
China has gradually improved the class and increased the mileage and harbour capacities of its inland waterways. As of the end of year 2019, inland waterways came to 127,300 kilometers in total, up to 13,800 kilometers of which ranked third class or above. All of the country’s ports had 2,520 berths at or above the 10,000-ton level, including 2,076 coastal port berths, giving China the world’s largest throughput.
■ Land Transportation Network
The ever-advancing networks of railways and roadways in China form a multi-layered traffic network extending in all directions. (1) Regular-speed rail. By the end of 2019, China’s rail network had grown to 193,000 kilometers, road density reaching 145.5 kilometers per 10,000 square kilometers. Passenger volume hit 3.66 billion trips and passenger turnover reached 1,470.664 billion personkilometers. Both the number of railway trips and the turnover of passengers show steady annual increases. (2) High-speed rail. China is one of the few countries in the world equipped with high-speed railways, leading in highspeed rail construction with an increase in operational high-speed rail mileage every year. In 2019, China's high-speed rail network exceeded 35,000 kilometers, amounting to more than two-thirds of the world total. (3) Highways. By the end of 2019, China’s total mileage of highways had reached 5,012,500 kilometers and highway density had reached 52.22 kilometers per 100 square kilometers. China's expressways totaled 149,600 kilometers, ranking No.1 worldwide. In addition, China's road passenger turnover was 885.708 billion person-kilometers; its road freight turnover stood at 5,963.639 billion ton-kilometers. The rapid development of road infrastructure has significantly improved road traffic capacity, transport efficiency, and logistics development.